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Neuro-ophthalmology- Connection between brain and vision

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What is neuro-ophthalmology?

Whatever you see the light reflection of the object gets to your retina and from where it is transmitted to the brain thus the image formation occurs. Here, the optic nerves of your eye are used to perform a transmission process in that case when there is any issue or damage with them will lead to visual impairment and when it is not treated it leads to irreparable damage to your vision.

Neuro-ophthalmology completely deals with the optic nerves of your eye and specialist who treat it are said to as neuro-ophthalmologists they are the only people who could help you in diagnosing the optic nerve issues before they become worse and also able to restore your vision.

Purpose of visiting neuro-ophthalmologist

Neuro-ophthalmologists are specialized in both neurology and ophthalmology so when your vision issue relates to your nervous system there you will be requiring assistance from these people. This kind of neuro-ophthalmic problem includes brain injuries or diseases like stroke, bacterial or microbial infections, or trauma. Sometimes it doesn’t cause a big issue with your vision but in some cases, it may cause serious vision complications such as vision loss.

Neuro ophthalmologists diagnose those diseases or conditions that affect your vision or movement of the eyes. There are series of ophthalmic tests will be conducted based on your condition and the treatment which include,

  1. Corrective procedures
  2. Surgical procedures
  3. Botox injections for muscle spasms

When you should fix your appointment?

If your vision is alarming that is when some changes occur to your vision there it is advisable to take an eye check-up. Remember neuro-ophthalmic problems should get immediately diagnosed to avoid further complications caused to the vision. In untreated cases, there are higher chances for optic nerve atrophy which is the death of the optic nerve which causes permanent vision loss. Below are the signs of optic nerve dysfunction,

  1. Sudden reduction in visual ability
  2. Severe headache and tearing
  3. Double vision
  4. Less reactive pupil
  5. Color blindness (couldn’t distinguish colors)
  6. Light-sensitivity (Couldn’t focus on lights-photophobia)
  7. Visibility coverage
  8. Visual hallucinations
  9. Squint or strabismus

What are the neuro-ophthalmic problems?

When you reach the ophthalmologist from best eye care provider in the city aid in treating your optic nerve issues there you will get to hear new medical terms relevant to neuro-ophthalmology you may not understand. But still, your doctor will try to explain to you to understand the condition or illness of your eyes before it is treated. Among them here are a few neuro-ophthalmic conditions,

Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis is a condition of the eye where the optic nerve gets inflammation it occurs in people who are living with multiple sclerosis. The optic nerves play a vital role in visual stimuli transmission but when the issue arises with it you cannot see the images which may cause blurry vision and color blindness.

Rarely, your auto-immune will detect the fatty coating of your optic nerve called myelin as a foreign and attacks it, in that case, when it gets affected the optic nerve couldn’t transmit the signals properly to the brain, and thus your vision gets some changes. People with diabetes mellitus are also prone to get optic neuritis and it is a kind of condition which arises within hours or days. Some people get recover from it in a few weeks and even if some don’t require any treatment there will be auto-recovery. Majorly females are highly prone and the common age of getting this condition is 20-40.

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is common in patients having diabetes, four types it is peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal neuropathy. Among them, focal neuropathy affects the specific nerves of the neck, head, and legs, this condition is because of rising blood sugar levels which reduce the blood supply to the retina and results in vision loss if left untreated. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include double vision, facial paralysis on one side, and eye pain. Focal neuropathy is unpredictable thus it is considered an emergency vision-threatening eye disorder. The chance of getting diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients is about 9%.

Papilloedema

The optic disc that connects your retina to the optic nerve it gets swells due to the intracranial pressure it may be a cause of brain tumors, hemorrhage, Cerebro spinal inflammation, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Thus the condition is said to be papilloedema and it may include space-occupying lesions such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, or tumor. This is a uncommon disorder but the symptoms includes headache, vomiting and blurry vision.

Nutritional optic neuropathy

Nutritional optic neuropathy is uncommon and is mostly caused by the vitamin B complex and folic acid deficiency. Other causes may include the overconsumption of tobacco and alcohol. It may lead to symmetrical, bilateral vision impairment and progressive vision loss so it should be treated properly.

Nystagmus

This is the condition when you couldn’t control your eye movements, they move up, moves down, side to side, or maybe in a circle. It is one of the eye issues which should be taken care you may get it from birth or got developed it later in life. You may get it from heredity, diseases like multiple sclerosis, stroke, and other eye conditions like cataracts or strabismus. In rare cases, it may also after a serious head injury. Children with nystagmus may experience blurry vision but it is not the same in adult conditions for them the world around them will be shaky because of it you couldn’t balance yourself.

Squint or strabismus

Squint is also set to as strabismus it is a condition in which the eyes are not aligned in the same direction it is associated with double vision. This type of disorder may or may not manifest in children. This kind of infection may develop before five years of age but in some, they may appear later also. The strabismus may also occur in an adult due to the residual childhood strabismus. You can check the changes in your children when their eyes turn inward, downward, upward, or outward while the other eye will focus on one particular spot.

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